ISSUE NUMBER 16

HISTORICAL MINIATURES BY GEORGE GRASSE
HISTORICAL MINIATURES JOURNAL

NOVEMBER 2012

HISTORICAL MINIATURES JOURNAL ISSUE NUMBER 16

PUBLISHED BY GEORGE GRASSE

 AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ZOUAVES

RESEARCH NOTES FOR MODELING 54mm SCALE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ZOUAVES: PART 16

9th NEW YORK INFANTRY REGIMENT "HAWKINS' ZOUAVES"

The core of the regiment was formed from the militia Company of New York Zouaves created by Rush Hawkins.  Recruits quickly filled out the regiment and it was mustered into state service on 23 April 1861 as the 9th New York Infantry Regiment.  Known always as "Hawkins' Zouaves", the regiment was mustered into Federal service on 4 May 1861.  The regiment left the state of New York for Newport News, Virginia, on 6 June 1861. 

Chronological Summary of Service for the 9th New York Infantry Regiment "Hawkins' Zouaves"

From / To Brigade Division Corps Army
Jun 1861 - Jan 1862 Newport News, Department of Virginia
Jan - Apr 1862 3rd n/a n/a Burnside's Expeditionary Corps
Apr - Jul 1862 4th n/a n/a Department of North Carolina
Jul 1862 - Apr 1863 1st 3rd 9th Army of the Potomac
Apr - May 1863 1st 2nd 7th Department of Virginia
May 1863 Mustered out and unexpired enlistees re-assigned to the 3rd New York Infantry Regiment

 

SERVICE RECORD SUMMARY

In early 1862, Federal strategy was to blockade the South and restrict imports.  The Atlantic Coast was a prime target and the preferred landing area of foreign blockade runners.   The northern portion of the Outer Banks was targeted, specifically the area around Roanoke Island.  To this end, General Ambrose Burnside with a corps-sized force conducted operations which included Colonel Rush Hawkins' 9th New York Infantry Regiment.  The expedition got underway on 5 February and Burnside engaged and defeated the Confederates defending Roanoke Island.  Various company-sized formations of Hawkins' Zouaves along with other elements Expedition's force participated in a number of small unit actions in the area but the 9th New York moved to Norfolk, Virginia, on 10 July 1862.  Shortly thereafter, the 9th was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac.

The regiment was in action at South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, the "Mud March", and thereafter moved to Newport News for minor operations in that area.  Moved to New York 3 to 5 May, 1863 where three years' men were re-assigned to the 3rd New York Infantry Regiment.  The remainder of the regiment mustered out 20 May 1863.  The regiment lost 2 officers and 69 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 officers and 23 enlisted men by disease for a total loss of 96 men.

 

THE UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT OF THE 9th NEW YORK INFANTRY "HAWKINS' ZOUAVES"

Colonel Rush Hawkins was largely responsible for the design of the regiment's distinctive French Zouave uniform, so much so that it became the pattern for many Union Zouave regiments.  Overall the short waist-length jacket and pants were dark federal blue joined by a red waistband.  Red piping decorated the uniform at the edges of the jacket all around with pointed cuffs, trefoils on either side of the jacket opening, red piping at the join of the upper sleeve with the shoulder, piping down the outside back seam, and along the bottom seam of the sleeves.  The inner vest worn under the jacket was without sleeves and did not open at the center.  Rather, it had an arrangement of buttons and loops along its right side so that the wearer wrapped the garment around the chest and fastened it along one side.  Around the neck and down the center was red piping. 

Pants had two parallel stripes of piping down each of the outer seams with a Hungarian knot in the center of the upper portion.  (Note: many of the piping features were not adopted by follow-on Zouave regiments because of cost).  The red fez was bordered in thin yellow piping all around its base.  The tassel was dark blue.  Shoes were blackened and white canvas leggings were worn. 

All equipment was standard federal issue including black knapsack, gray-brown blanket rolled and attached to the knapsack top, canteen, black haversack, black waist belt supporting the cartridge box, cap box, and bayonet scabbard, and, at some point, issued with the Springfield rifle-musket model 1861. 

 

MAKING A "HAWKINS' ZOUAVE"

          Figure 1        

    

 

The 9th New York "Hawkins' Zouave"  figure is made from Shenandoah's SHZ007 kit as shown on the left in Figure 1.  I decided to replace the head with a resin head from an old Casque d'Or head set.  I added the waist sash's dangling end as shown in Figure 2.  To be added will be a knapsack and the its straps plus a tin drinking cup.  

The figure at right is mounted on its finished base, an Andrea product ANP017.  This was a left-over base from another project in which that figure was removed and this accounts for the ground preparation.  More detail to ground work will be added near the end of the painting process.

                          Figure 2

 

 

Figure 3

 

Before continuing I had to add the knapsack straps.  One piece is looped around each shoulder starting and ending in the back of the figure out of sight once the knapsack is attached.  The front cross straps consist of two small pieces forming an elongated cross across the chest.  After reviewing source material, the "dangling" waist sash was removed.  Painting begins with the face details of which have been explained in previous issues.  Note that the fez is also painted is the base flesh color.  This is an excellent undercoat for red. 

Figure 4 shows nearly complete painting of the torso.  The red trim is a mix of Vallejo VC0957 Red and VC0945 Magenta.  The jacket and undershirt are my mix for dark uniform blue.  Straps for the knapsack are semi-gloss black.

Figure 4

 

 
 

Figure 5a

 

 

Figure 5a at left shows the placement of the knapsack straps.  Two are coming from over the shoulder and two more from the sides.  When the knapsack is glued in place, most of the figure's back will be covered.  The small tassel cord just to the right of the neck is for the medium blue tassel shown in Figure 5b.  The equipment shown in Figure 5a are painted semi-gloss black except the canteen which is painted Andrea ANAC57 Emerald Gray and its straps will be painted off-white.  

Figure 5b on the right shows the tassel hanging down from the right shoulder.  This position to the front keeps the knapsack from crowding the tassel if it were hung to the back.  The trousers are highlighted by two parallel magenta red stripes and a "Hungarian knot" in the center at the top.  Better view is forthcoming.  Leggings a white canvas painted with Vallejo VC0951 Flat White and stained with off-white.  The upper part is covered by the yellow ochre leather jambon.  Legging buttons are cloth-covered and painted off white.

Figure 5b

 

 
 

Figure 6a

 

 

Figure 6a shows the completed figure from the front.  Black leather edging has been added to the Jambons.  The wood of the musket was painted in Andrea ANAC17 Dark Brown.  The musket's metal parts are in Vallejo VC0864 Natural Steel.  All shading was done with Vallejo VC0941 Burnt Umber.  The musket sling is Andrea ANAC16 Medium Brown stained with Andrea ANAC48 Dark Leather. 

Figure 6b is the completed figure from the rear.  The knapsack is semi-gloss black with a white "9".  The canteen is Andrea ANAC57 Emerald Gray stained with off-white mixed with the emerald gray.  Canteen straps are my mix of "off-white".  

Figure 6b

 

*** FINIS ***

 

SPECIAL ARTICLE

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dyer, Frederick H.  A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Volume III.  New York: Thomas Yoseloff Publisher, 1959 (see pages 1408-09).

Smith, Robin.  American Civil War Zouaves, Osprey Elite Series No. 62.  London: Osprey, 1996.

Rocco, Keith.  Always Ready - the 9th New York Hawkins' Zouaves at Antietam (limited edition print).

Troiani, Don.  Don Troiani's Regiments & Uniforms of the Civil War, Art by Don Troiani, text by Earl J. Coates, Michael J. McAfee, and Don Troiani.  Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2002 (see page 82-83 for art work and text).

 

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